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EOR

 

EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) helps to improve the average recovery factor EORfor typical mature fields around the world up to 30-40%, extending worldwide reserves to a bit more than 50 years supply of oil. The different techniques used, including Water & Gas injection (WAG), polymer flooding, flow diversion, the use of surfactants, and steam injection for heavy oils (both Steal Assisted Gravity drainage – SAGD wells, and cyclic steam injection (CSS wells) will increase the life of a field. Sometimes oil and gas operators need to modify the injection/production profile, to switch from producer to an injector well, having first to cover unwanted perforations with a casing patch.

 

Isolate Perforations

Saltel Industries offers a remedial alternative to isolate perforations with a thin-walled casing patch. Run with drill-pipe or coiled-tubing, Saltel Patch allows one of the best ID access to the well below (for packers, tubing anchors...) Saltel Xpandable Steel Patch seals effectively and holds significant differential pressures. ratings (See Xpandable Steel Patch for EOR)

 

Modifying injection profile

Many wells are completed and perforated, in both production and injection wells. During the life of well, the required profile might be reconfigured, as fluid levels vary, and EOR techniques allow modifying downhole parameters. It may be necessary to close off existing perforations, re-perforate in new zones, or change the injection profile. Covering perforations with Xpandable Steel Patch is an optimized EOR technique allowing to eliminate unwanted and expensive water production, to reduce gas production, and to avoid cross-flow (communication between 2 reservoirs). This technology is also suitable when converting a producing well into an injector (or vice-versa).

Casing Integrity

How to restore Casing integrity?

Casing integrity may be jeopardized due to corrosion, to mechanical failure, or to perforations to seal after cement remediation operations. If cement remediation requires casing perforations, then an expandable steel patch can be used to provide pressure integrity across the perforations.
If casing pressure test cannot be achieved due to mechanical failures such as leaking DV tool or casing collar leak, a similar approach can be used to achieve pressure integrity.
Operators need a reliable solution to cover up and isolate sections of the damaged casing, and to withstand at the same time high differential service pressure ratings, both internal and external.

You can restore the integrity of a damaged casing using Saltel Xpandable Steel Patch.

Tubing Corrosion

Xpandable Patch corroded tubingInternal or external corrosion of tubings in the presence of water is a common problem during the life of the well. Most oil and gas production involves co-produced water, making corrosion a pervasive issue across the oil and gas industry.
Moreover, age and presence of corrosive materials such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can exacerbate the problem.

The inevitable exposure with production fluids can compromise the integrity of a tubing string. Either through mechanical fatigue, heat dilatation or corrosion, a leak can appear. For tubing sizes 4-1/2 to 13-3/8in, Saltel Xpandable Steel Patch can be run to repair corroded tubings (once installed the Patch given internal and external differential pressure rating vary depending on whether it is supported or not). Running a tubing Patch eliminates the need to pull out the completion string, and minimizes the non-productive time involved with a full workover operation.

Saltel Xpandable Patch is an excellent inner lining alternative for repairing corroded or eroded tubings, should they be even twisted, burst or bent.
The Patch seals the corroded zone, ensuring maximum nominal and drift ID after setting. Saltel Patch provides effective sealing, even in out of gauge or worn tubings. Here the Patch sealing efficiency logically depends on the level of corrosion, and the elastomer skin thickness.

Well intervention

Well intervention Extending the life of producing wells

Saltel Industries offers a range of well intervention services based on a solid field-proven track record and experience to extend the life of producing wells, by improving performance and recovery of hydrocarbon reserves.

During the life of well, some downhole hardware might require maintenance, repair or replacement. When requested, operators usually turn to well intervention contractors. Well interventions can be split in two general categories: light or heavy.

Light well interventions address live well operations with pressure at the surface, to replace or adjust downhole equipment such as pumps, valve, or to collect live data on pressure, temperature and flow rates. Saltel Patches can be set to address casing integrity issues with a smart coiled tubing unit or a snubbing unit. The feasibility of the job will depend on the well configuration.

Heavy well interventions involve the interruption of the production prior to process major equipment changes. Also referred to as workovers, heavy interventions means replacing bigger hardware such as tubing strings and pumps that cannot be retrieved through light interventions. Prior to replacing tubing strings, the casing or tubing patch alternative can usually be sufficient to repair corrosion, leaks, or parted connections, and can even be used as a backup to squeeze cement or squeeze gels, depending on the application and the well configuration.

Specific heavy interventions may be performed to plug and abandon an initial producing zone, to reconfigure the well and produce from a secondary zone; these operations are known as recompletions. Saltel Xpandable Steel well Packers have already been used as a plug and abandonment solution and also as annulus isolation barriers in recompleted wells.

Parted Casing or Parted tubing

 
 
 
 

 

Parted tubingParted casing

The parted casing is the result of a tubular exceeding its mechanical limits due to overpressure rates during stimulation, excessive loading, or tectonic movement.

In the case of a parted casing string, the separation usually occurs at the coupling, due either to a fracture, the stripping of the threads, the collapsing of the end of a joint, the expanding of the coupling, or two or more factors in combination.

 

Parted tubing

A sudden loss of weight and a decrease in circulating pressure usually means the pipe has parted downhole. Care is necessary when pulling out of the hole after the tubing has parted since there is no BHA to prevent the broken pipe being pulled right out the stripper and a consequent loss of containment.

Benefits in repairing parted tubular with Saltel casing Patch

  • Sealing efficiency against the parted tubular. Once installed Saltel patch sealing design allows relative displacement. That means the parted section will slide around the patch without damaging the seal in case of thermal expansion of the tubular during production.
  • Excellent resistance to temperature cycling. Extreme high-temperature patches were installed with success to repair 7in and 9-5/8in parted casings in Canadian CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) wells, where temperature cycling is essential. Saltel casing Patch confirmed strong resistance in CSS wells.
  • Optimized profile of the patch BHA to enter the parted section. The bottom of BHA has a good entry guide profile to reach setting depth, even in a parted section. This statement is valid only if the misalignment of the parted sections remains minimal.

 

Pipeline Repair

Saltel Industries and Atteris have combined their expertise and technology to develop a range of new pipeline repair methods. This game changing technology is based on internally repairing a pipeline defect using Saltel Industries’ proven Expandable Steel Technology, combined with standard deployment techniques and equipment.
In many pipeline defect repair scenarios the internal patch repair technology enables a substantial reduction in repair cost, possibly avoiding the need for a diving support vessel, a hyperbaric weld spread, pipeline handling frames and mass flow excavation equipment.
The Saltel Expandable Steel Patch is made of a high quality corrosion resistant alloy sleeve covered with elastomers. The Patch can be run on coiled tubing or drill pipe from an access point several kilometers away from the target. At the pipeline’s defect location the Patch is expanded using Saltel Industries’ high pressure inflatable packer. Packer inflation pushes the patch against the pipe wall to activate the outer seals. Then the setting tools are extracted to leave a pressure resistant inner lining inside the pipeline.

We deliver a complete package including engineering, design, qualification, compliance, onsite management and installation. Installation is managed by highly trained Saltel engineers ensuring the success of every repair.

SAGD Remedial Applications

SAGD Remedial Applications
 

This method employs a pair of horizontal wells along the reservoir to produce the heavy oil. The upper well is continuously injecting high pressure vapor to heat the reservoir and reduce oil viscosity. At the same time, the heated oil drains into the lower well where it is pumped out.
Even if the vapor pressure and temperature is lower than CSS wells, reducing thermal stress on the casing string, leaking couplings and casing failures can occur. We adapted our technology to propose a remedial solution able to withstand high temperature and to seal high pressure in “out-of-zone” part of the well while being cost effective for operators.

Challenges

• High temperature conditions up to 300°C
• Seal evenly at high and low temperature
• Minimum impact on production rate to keep the well profitable
• No ageing concerns of materials used
• Cost effective solution

Solution

Saltel Expandable Steel High Temp Patch 300°C/572°F is a life of the well solution to repair thermal well with high pressure / high temperature conditions. The technology and the setting procedure are based on the standard SES Patch with some changes on the sealing design to fit the high temperature without using elastomer. (Our product was successfully qualified through SAGD conditions up to 300°C with no degradation detected).

Refracturing

Refracturing

ReFracturing in the shale formation allows increasing the production once it significantly drops to marginal rates. ReFrac process is an effective solution to improve and stimulate the existing fracture network, reduce initial fracture spacing, which gives access to unperforated pay zones in the shale reservoir. Refracturing has to be reliable, fast, and cost-effective.

Saltel Expandable Steel Refrac System

  • Use a straddle tool to frac or refrac between two inflatable packers
  • No use of ball activated frac ports
  • The completion can be P&P or OHMS
  • Pin point solution, Simple operation, Operation time decrease, Frac efficiency

Damaged Casing Repair

damaged casing repair
 

Since the casing string is intimately linked to the production lifespan, the maintenance and repair of well tubulars is a major concern for operators. Damaged casings mean both serious hazards to QHSE and potential jeopardy of the production rates. Mature and new wells are both subject to such threats, and may require an intervention. Casing repair prevents not only blow outs, collapse of the damaged strings, but also can eliminate the need for a major workover.

The Saltel Expandable Steel Casing Patch (SES Patch) allows restoring casing integrity, optimizes the well's production, and prevents fluid or gas migrations in the annulus. The Patch once set, leaves large ID access to the well for most standard downhole tools. Saltel Patch is a pressure-resistant inner lining which allows the end user to avoid plug and abandonment decisions.

Damaged Tubing Repair

Damaged Tubing Repair
 

After several years of production the integrity of a tubing string can be compromised.  Either through mechanical fatigue, heat dilatation or corrosion, a leak can appear. For tubing sizes 4 ½” or larger, the Saltel Patch can be used to repair any holes or damage to the tubing.  By running a Saltel patch the necessity to pull the tubing is eliminated, thus minimizing the downtime associated with a full work over operation.

 

Damaged Sand Screen Repair

 

Erosion is always a major concern in any screen installation.

Sand Screens can be damaged with sand migrating through the slots. Abrasion is the primary reason for screen failure, due to an excessive sand production.

Saltel patch can isolate these damaged sections and reduce or eliminate sand production. 

 

Saltel Patch is an alternative to reduce the sand production and stop the abrasive effect of the sand grains. The patch is made from a high quality stainless steel sleeve, with an outer profiled sealing cover.

Saltel Patch is run on tubing, drill pipe, or intelligent coiled tubing. At depth, it is expanded using a high pressure inflatable packer, and the sealing system is energised against the casing internal wall. The setting tools are then extracted to leave a resistant inner lining inside the well.
Once set, the patch acts as a diverter, molding the internal shape of the damaged screen, leaving large ID for running most standard downhole tools, and reduces the amount of sand produced.

In some cases, patches could be set in overlap to extend the length of the diverter.

 

CSS Remedial Applications

CSS Remedial Applications
 

This single-well method consists of injecting steam at high pressure and high temperature in the reservoir during the first phase. A soaking (or shut-in) phase is completed to let the reservoir heat-up evenly by convection and then the heated oil is pumped out from the same well. Once the oil production rate decreases because of reservoir cooling, another cycle is engaged.

Challenges

• High temperature conditions up to 335°C
• Aggressive environment due to H2S concentration and high temperature
• Up to 10 thermal cycling
• Seals equally well at both high and low temperatures
• Minimum impact on production rate to keep the well profitable by leaving a maximum inside diameter.

Solution

The Saltel Expandable Steel High Temp Patch 335°C/635°F is a life-of-the-well solution to repair a thermal well with high-pressure / high-temperature conditions. The technology and the setting procedure are based on the standard SES Patch with some changes on the material selection to fit the harsh conditions without using an elastomer. Our product was successfully qualified through CSS conditions with 10 thermal cycles and approved to repair “out of zone” part of the wells.

Leaking DV Tool Repair

Leaking DV Tool Repair
 

After a Staged-cementing job is complete, it may not be possible to close the Stage tool or differential valve (DV) tool.  Should this occur, the optimum solution would be to set a Saltel patch across the ports to seal off the open port.  If this is to be Frac’d, the Saltel patch provides a minimal loss of ID, in fact Saltel Industries guarantees the largest ID in the industry across a milled port.  This being the case the Operator is able to Frac with sometimes losing NO stages.  Once the well is Frac’d the patch has served its purpose and can be perforated to eliminate any possibility of collapse during flow-back.

leaking DV tool repair

Damaged Frac Port Repair

 

After running the completion, a Frac port may have opened prematurely. Prior to beginning the Frac operation, it will be necessary to seal off this open port.

 

With the inherent design the Saltel Patch being able to conform to varying ID's, this is the ideal solution to cover the open port. We are so confident that the Saltel Patch provides such a minimal loss of ID that we guarantee the largest ID in the industry across a milled port. Because of this, many times the operator is able to Frac without losing any stages. Once the well is fracked, the patch has served its purpose and can be perforated to eliminate any possibility of collapse during flowback.

 

Leaking Couplings Repair

Casing damages are due to numerous reasons: corrosion, parts, splits or erosion.  Although the cause for these phenomenon’s may differ, the solution still remains the same, the Saltel Expandable Steel Casing Patch!  With the state of the art setting procedures of controlled plastic deformation of steel and a 2 meter sealing element at each end of the patch, attaining a pressure integrity seal in the damaged casing is assured.  The length of the patch is specifically adjusted be increase the length of the spacer pipe to cover the length the impairment.  For example, if a 10 meter joint of casing was 50% eroded, a 14 meter patch would be made, there would be 2 meters of sealing element on both sides of the eroded joint.  The sealing elements would be expanded providing a seal in the good quality casing and the spacer pipe would be expanded just the contact point in the eroded joint.

 

Completion Module Repair

 

Saltel Patch is not designed only to meet mature well applications, it is also an answer to downhole issues in new well applications, such as repairing an ECP valve, a leaking DV Tool, a damaged Frac Port, or other hardware.

In new wells, the internal diameter is one major concern for operators, who may need to have access for other tools, or continue subsequent steps from interrupted Hydraulic Fracturing operations.

Saltel Patch repairs leaking completion modules such as DV tools, couplings, or frac ports.
This expandable short length of tubular is made from high quality stainless steel and an elastomer outer
skin with a profiled sealing system. The Patch is run on tubing, drill pipe, or coil tubing. At depth the Patch is
expanded using a high pressure inflatable packer, and pushed against the casing to activate the outer seals.
The setting tools are extracted to leave a pressure resistant inner lining inside the casing or a downhole tool.
Withstanding most hydraulic fracturing pressures, Saltel Expandable Steel Patches are an excellent solution
which will mold to the inner diameter of the dmaged hardware, to leave the largest possible ID for running
tools or optimising fracing or production rates.

Completion Module repair

High Temperature

Steam injection has become a commonly used enhanced oil recovery (EOR) solution for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen. The goal is to heat the reservoir and reduce the oil viscosity in order to produce it. Several method have been developed including Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) also known as “huff and puff”, Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and Steam flooding. These technologies and the temperature variations put significant stress’ on the casings, and damage can occur.
Adapting our remedial technology to meet these high temperature conditions was a real challenge. During injection the well temperature can reach 335°C (635°F) considerably reducing the possibility of using standard materials. The springback from expanded steel and the thermal variations exclude the possibility of a metal-metal seal. Using any elastomer to make the seal raises questions of ageing and product lifetime in the well, and was discarded for these high temperatures.

The technology we have developed for these applications uses stronger and more reliable materials to overcome these concerns and offer a life of the well remedial solution for damaged thermal wells with low impact on production rate.

    

CSS Remedial Applications

 

CSS REMEDIAL APPLICATIONS

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SAGD Remedial Applications

 

SAGD REMEDIAL APPLICATIONS

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Enhanced Oil Recovery

Enhanced Oil Recovery
 

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) helped to dramatically improve the average recovery factor for typical mature oil fields around the world to 30 – 40%, giving us at present more than 50 years supply of oil. The different techniques used, including Water & Gas injection (WAG), polymer flooding, flow diversion, the use of surfactants, and steam injection for heavy oils (both Steal Assisted Gravity drainage – SAGD wells, and cyclic steam injection (CSS wells) will increase the life of a field. 

Saltel Industries has developed a range of Expandable Steel Casing Patches with unique characteristics for resolving many of these problems. Set using an Inflatable Composite Element the Patches will create a this steel high pressure inner lining in casing to shut-off perforations, isolate specific zones, and restore casing integrity leaving a maximum ID passage. Patches have even been developed for use in Steam Injection Wells at working temperatures of up to 335°C/635°F

    

Perforation Shut Off

 

Perforation shut off - enhanced oil recovery

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Modifying Injections Profile

 

Modifying injections profile  - enhanced oil recovery

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High Temp Remedial 

 

High Temp patch -  - enhanced oil recovery

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New Well Applications

If Saltel Expandable Steel Patches are designed to meet mature well applications (Well maintenance and repair, corroded casing, damaged tubing, and leaking couplings repair...), they are also an answer to downhole issues in new well applications, such as repairing an ECP valve, a leaking DV Tool, or a damaged Frac Port.

In new wells, the internal diameter is one major concern for operators, who need to continue subsequent steps from interrupted Hydraulic Fracturing operations. Restoring the well integrity is also capital for operators willing to continue on fracturing.

Saltel Expandable Steel Patches, withstanding most hydraulic fracturing pressures, are one of the best fitting solutions to hydroforming and moulding on broken DV tools, prior to resuming fracturing operations.

    

Completion Module Repair

 

COMPLETION MODULE REPAIR

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Leaking Couplings

 

LEAKING COUPLINGS

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Damaged Frac Ports

 

DAMAGED FRAC PORTS

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Leaking DV Tools

 

leaking dv tools

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Water Shutoff

Xpandable steel patch for effective water shut off 

water shutoff
 

Xpandable Patch eliminates or reduces the water production without restricting the wellbore access. It seals the perforated zone without restricting the production from the neighboring perforations. The patch Provides 100% effective seal even in damaged or worn casings.

Challenges

  • Accurate positioning close to oil or gas producing perforations
  • Rapid delivery Seal effectively in corroded or ovalised hole
  • Effective pressure resistant watertight seal

 

Modifying Injections Profiles


Modifying injections profil
 

Many conventional wells are completed and perforated, in both production and injection wells. During life of well the required profile is likely to change as fluid levels vary, and the production enhancement techniques modify the downhole parameters. It may become necessary to close off existing perforations, re-perforate in different zones, or modify injection profiles. Sealing unwanted perforations can eliminate unwanted and expensive water production, optimize the Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques used, reduce gas production, or avoid cross flow (communication between 2 reservoirs). This technology can be used when converting a producing well into an injector (or vice-versa).

Challenges

■ Accurate positioning close to oil or gas producing perforations
■ Seal effectively in corroded or ovalised hole
■ Ensure maximum internal diameter to leave full access to the perforation tool
■ Rapid delivery
■ Effective pressure resistant watertight sealing

Benefits

■ Restores casing integrity, holding internal differentials 15,000 psi
■ Quick, efficient, and reliable isolation
■ Large ID. Leaves access for running tools or drilling ahead
■ Repairs completion modules (ICDs, sand screens, frac ports...)
■ Always seals, regardless of casing condition, well loss or ovalisation

Gas Shut Off

gas shut off
 

The Saltel Expandable Patch can provide wellbore integrity in wells that have been perforated off depth or to isolate a zone that are depleted or producing unwanted gas or fluids.  This patch is considered to a `Life of the Well Solution` and shutting off unwanted production is one of the key features of the Saltel casing patch.  Whether it be gas or water migration into the wellbore, with the Saltel Patch being V0 design and V3 qualified, a seal is assured in these environments.  For regulation purposes, any zones that are isolated with a Saltel Patch are considered to be suspended and not abandoned.  As with all Saltel patches, minimal loss of ID is achieve while ensuring an effective seal in non-uniform casing. 

 

Perforation Shut Off

 

perforation shutoff
 

Saltel Industries offers a remedial solution for perforations shut off using a thin walled expandable steel patch run on drill pipe or coiled tubing, that allows access to the well below (for packers, tubing anchors....) Saltel Patch seals effectively and holds significant differential pressures.

Water Shutoff

Saltel Patch can be set to seal perforations to eliminate or reduces water production, without significantly restricting the wellbore access. It seals the perforated zone without restricting the production from the neighboring perforations. It provides an effective seal even in damaged or worn casings.

Gas Shutoff

Saltel Patch can be used to isolate a zone producing unwanted gas or fluids. As with all Saltel patches, minimal ID loss is achieved while ensuring an effective seal, even in non-uniform casings.

Modifying injection profiles

Many conventional wells are completed and perforated, in both production and injection wells. During life of well the required profile is likely to change as fluid levels vary, and the production enhancement techniques modify the downhole parameters. It may become necessary to close off existing perforations, re-perforate in different zones, or modify injection profiles.

Challenges

■ Accurate positioning close to oil or gas producing perforations
■ Seal effectively in corroded or ovalised hole
■ Ensure maximum internal diameter to leave full access to the perforation tool
■ Rapid delivery
■ Effective pressure resistant watertight sealing

Benefits

■ Restores casing integrity, holding internal differentials 15,000 psi
■ Quick, efficient, and reliable isolation
■ Large ID. Leaves access for running tools or drilling ahead
■ Repairs completion modules (ICDs, sand screens, frac ports...)
■ Always seals, regardless of casing condition, well loss or ovalisation

 

    

Water ShutOff

 

Water shutoff

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Gas Shutoff

 

Gas shutoff

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Modifying injection profiles

 

Modifying injection profiles

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